What are the types of land use in Mexico?

What are the types of land use in Mexico?

The reasons why you decide to acquire land in Blue World City can be several, for example starting your own business, expanding an existing one, as an investment for retirement, to do buying and selling businesses obtaining a profit with it, among others.

Regardless of the reason why you want to buy a land or investment lot, it is important to define the use that will be given to it, this is a key piece for the success of your purchase because the use of land varies depending on the type of business with which it is. used.

The use of land in Mexico is basically the same, except for some variations in terms of procedures or similar by State. In this article we will explain in detail the types of land use that exist and the basic concepts you need to know when buying land.

What is land use?

Land use is defined as a generic set of restricted activities that can be carried out in a specific area, which are admitted or restricted by the Territorial Planning Instrument.

In a simpler way we can say that land use is what determines the activities that can be carried out on a property. This document informs what use can be given to the property according to its geographical location.

In order to build on a plot of land, the document that endorses the use of the land and a construction license is required, which includes all the technical specifications that the construction must adhere to.

Why is land use important?

It is important because it is a requirement that allows commercial activities on a property, as well as environmental permits, among others.

It is also useful in cases where there is already a construction but the use of the land changes, this will allow the original use of the property to continue as long as it meets the requirements even if it has changed.

Types of land use

According to its characteristics, the same land can have more than one type of land use.

To determine the type of land that corresponds, studies of land use are carried out, and they are in charge of the urban development departments of the corresponding state or locality.

The classification may vary depending on the state or country in which the land is located, however, we will tell you about the main ones.

1. Residential

The type of residential use is the one that is intended for housing construction, it does not matter if it is a luxury home in a residential area or a social interest house.

Types of residential use:

  • Housing: Includes departmental buildings and condominiums, houses, residential and private complexes.
  • Foster home: This can be a home for the elderly, a homeless shelter, orphanages or temporary homes for minors.
  • Establishment dedicated to lodging: It refers to hotels, hostels, cabins, motels and any other place that offers lodging services.

Similarly, regardless of whether the free or paid accommodation is provided, the change of use is not necessary, as long as commercial services such as restaurants, bars, nightclubs, among others, are not provided.

The construction companies are the main interested in acquiring this type of land, either to subdivide and build subdivisions to put up for sale, or to sell as investment lots with the idea of ​​building a home in the future.

The main characteristic of this type of land is that they are located in urbanized areas with main streets, ridges and with accessibility near other subdivisions, schools and hospitals, as well as access to urban transport, thinking about the needs of future residents.

They are also delivered with potable water and electricity services running, as well as public lighting and paved streets.

2. Productive activities

With productive activities we refer to those that comprise various types of industry or that have an impact similar to the industrial one.

To carry out this type of activities, it is necessary to have the necessary land use permits, as well as compliance with environmental regulations, among other pertinent provisions.

Among the main industrial activities that require this type of permit for land use we can mention:

  • Industrial activities: The main ones are the chemical, metallurgical, construction, mechanical, manufacturing and food industries.
  • Agriculture: They include fields for crops, vegetables, greenhouses, agribusiness, sheds, silos, among others.
  • Livestock: Include cattle pastures, sheds, stables, and more.
  • Fishing and hunting: We can mention the aquaculture farming centers, the coves for fishermen, and the Benthic Resources Management and Exploitation Areas (AMERB).
  • Silviculture: It is a set of activities related to the use, exploitation and management of forests, for example tree plantations, sheds, sawmills and native forests.
  • Mining and quarrying: Refer to the exploration, exploitation and management of minerals and fossil fuels such as coal, lignite, oil and gas.

These productive activities belong to the primary sector, and the vast majority cannot be carried out within the cities, so tracts of land are allocated for their exclusive use to the outskirts, to avoid harming the population.

In the case of agriculture and livestock, it is necessary to carry out soil studies that guarantee that the land is appropriate for these activities.

In our article 7 business ideas to earn money with land we talk in more detail about the use of a property for industry or livestock.

3. Equipment

The equipment activities cover various sectors and productive branches, which provide products and services that complement the rest of the activities.

To mention it in a simpler way, this land use is more focused on the commercial sector, that is, if you want to acquire land to start a business, you must have a land use permit for commercial purposes.

Among the main examples of commercial equipment activities, we find:

  • Commerce: Covers general businesses such as restaurants, warehouses, markets, laundries, stationery stores, convenience stores, shopping malls and many more.
  • Services: Includes common use services such as banking, mail, government offices, legal services such as law firms and notaries, among others.
  • Security: These types of activities include police stations, fire stations, as well as prisons and reformatories.
  • Health: Covers hospitals, clinics, clinics and the like.
  • Social: They can be neighborhood associations and community organizations.
  • Scientific: Refers to research centers and laboratories.
  • Education: Educational centers of all levels, from nurseries to universities, whether government or private.
  • Sport: It encompasses spaces such as gyms, sports clubs, stadiums, courts, swimming pools, among others.
  • Recreation: They include establishments such as zoos, parks, casinos, game centers, fairs, shopping centers and more.
  • Culture: Covers cultural activities such as museums, cinemas, art rooms, theaters, libraries, among others.
  • Worship: Includes spaces used for religious purposes such as churches, temples, synagogues, mosques, convents.

The commercial sector encompasses a wide variety of establishments with different uses such as those we mentioned. Unlike the industrial sector, businesses can coexist within the city without harming the population and in conjunction with housing units.

Now, according to its equipment scale and its location and occupation load, we can classify the equipment activities into the following:

  • Larger equipment: It includes an occupation load greater than 6000 people.
  • Medium equipment: It covers an occupation load ranging from 1000 to 6000 people.
  • Minor Equipment: It contemplates an occupation load that goes from 250 to 1000 people.
  • Basic equipment: Includes an occupancy load of up to 250 people.

This type of land use is one of the most popular because the benefits of buying land in a commercial area are many, due to the long-term advantages it provides by growing your money safely and with the possibility of obtaining extra profits if you decide to give it. for rent to a franchise.

There are companies in the real estate industry – such as BMF Inversions – that grant legal certainty in the purchase of their properties and guarantee your investment.

4. Infrastructure

This type of land use refers to the set of public works, buildings, facilities, systems and networks that allow the normal functioning of citizen life in countries and other forms of social organization.

The main systems that use this type of land use are:

  • Transport infrastructure: It is made up of a road system whose purpose is the transfer of people and goods, for example land transport terminals, airports, roads and railway stations, roads, bridges and ports, to mention the most important.
  • Sanitary infrastructure: Refers to the networks capable of providing basic drinking water distribution services, water treatment plants, sewerage, final waste disposal, among others.
  • Energy infrastructure: Includes energy generation or distribution channels, for example oil extraction wells, refineries, natural gas extraction wells and gas pipelines.
  • Telecommunications infrastructure: It is in charge of distributing information, transferring voice and video using communication media, saving the need for people to travel from one place to another to obtain it. Examples of this are television channels, telephone channels, radio and cellular antennas, among others.

This type of land use is generally used by government institutions, which are in charge of carrying out large-scale projects such as federal highways, bridges, and the infrastructure necessary for the functioning of society.

Special permits are required to guarantee the construction of buildings for infrastructure in any of their classifications.

5. Public space

As its name indicates, the use of land for public space refers to the territory in which anyone has the right to be and move freely, regardless of whether they are open-air or closed spaces.

Clear examples of this are:

  • Parks
  • Green areas
  • Plazas
  • Streets
  • Libraries
  • Community centers

The public space can be governed under the following concepts:

  • National assets: they are those that belong to the nation, that is to say, that are in national territory and belong to all its inhabitants.
  • National assets for public use: these are the properties that, being the domain of the nation, are intended for the use of the inhabitants.
  • State assets or fiscal assets: they are those that do not necessarily belong to their inhabitants, they are state assets that lack another owner.

Like the use of land for infrastructure, it is the government that authorizes the pertinent permits and determines how said public space will be used according to the needs of the locality.

6. Green area

Unlike the public space, the territories designated for green areas are not national assets and the owner can vary, be it a natural, legal, private or public person.

The green areas have their exact limits defined and must have at least 90% of open spaces and the constructions that are authorized must not exceed 10% of the land as a whole.

Some examples of lands with use of green area are parks with extensions of land made up of trees, plants, urban gardens and historic gardens.

Green areas function as lungs for the locality and are of vital importance within the infrastructure of a community.

Regulatory and normative framework

Now that you know the land uses in Mexico, we will briefly talk to you about the importance of the Territorial Planning Instruments (ITP) to define the uses in each area.

ITPs are the instruments by which policies for the protection and use of land are carried out in the national territory, regardless of whether it is urban or rural land.

According to the levels of action, ITPs are classified as:

1. Nationals

  • General Law of Urbanism and Constructions (LGUC).
  • General Ordinance of Urbanism and Constructions (OGUC).

2. Regionals

  • Intercommunal Regulatory Plan (PRI).
  • Metropolitan Regulatory Plan (PRM).

3. Communal

  • Communal Regulatory Plan (PRC).
  • Sectional Plan (SECTIONAL).

4. Others

  • Urban Limit
  • Complementary provisions.

The Urban Development Programs —as well as the Partial Urban Development Programs— determine the permitted land uses in each territorial extension in order to establish the activities that can be carried out in each area for the benefit of the community.

Land with the right land use for your project

Now that you know the types of land, it will be easier to develop a business plan, and to know accurately the type of land you require for your investment project, as well as the factors to assess the risks involved.

At BMF Inversions we have more than 25 years of success in real estate with real estate projects backed by market studies that guarantee an accurate investment.